Congress and the White House appear far from a deal to avoid going over the fiscal cliff at the end of the year. The sudden changes in taxes and spending would hit home for some farm families and people depending on support programs in the farm bill.
The fiscal cliff is shorthand for $1.2 trillion in tax increases and spending cuts set up when Congress was dealing with the debt ceiling in 2011.
Farmers were peering over the edge at the recent annual meeting of the Nebraska Farm Bureau in Kearney and did not like what they saw. For starters, like everyone else, farmers’ income taxes would go up. But a longer-term issue is also at stake: whether a family can leave the farm to the next generation.
Zach Hunnicutt stood out at the meeting in his bright red Farm Bureau shirt. The 30 year-old from Aurora, Neb. grows irrigated corn, popcorn, and soybeans with his family.
Photo by Justine Greve for Harvest Public Media
Dairy farmers are working without their normal support from the federal government because the farm bill expired in September. Now the fate of the farm bill is intertwined with negotiations over the fiscal cliff.
In 2012, a farm would be taxed at a 35 percent rate if it is worth more than $5 million. Next year the law would go back to what it was in 2001, when estates over $1 million were taxed 55 percent.
“Honestly, if it’s at 55 percent and a million dollars, there’s not a good way to plan for that,” Hunnicutt said. “You’re looking at having to sell off significant assets just to foot the tax bill because dad died.”
“What do you do? Are you going to sell the land to pay a tax? Well, there goes the operation,” said Brad Lubben, an agricultural economist at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Lubben said a million dollars is a low bar for a farm estate at today’s land prices.
“One million. Five million. It still sounds like a pretty big estate,” said Lubben. “On the other hand if the policy goal is helping farm operations maintain continuity across generations, at today’s land values a million-dollar estate isn’t even a quarter section of land.”
Several producers at the Nebraska Farm Bureau meeting said if they do have to pay more taxes, they want to see more cuts.
That is the other part of the fiscal cliff. Sequestration. Automatic, across-the-board, budget cuts.
At the U.S. Department of Agriculture, about $3 billion in cuts would be targeted on discretionary spending items including some farm loans, disaster relief, research, and food inspections. But the largest amount of money cut from USDA would be felt far away from the farm.
Erica Arter coordinates the WIC (Women, Infants, and Children) program at Family Service in Lincoln, Neb. WIC is a supplemental nutrition program for low-income pregnant women and mothers with young children. Arter is concerned about cutbacks if more than $500 million in cuts to the federal WIC budget become a reality.
“It could mean not being able to serve all the participants that are able to qualify for the program,” Arter said. “It could mean staffing cuts. It could mean not being able to serve the clients as well by having reduced clinic hours.”
Photo by Grant Gerlock, NET News
Erica Arter is WIC coordinator for Family Service in Lincoln, Neb. If cuts are made to the WIC budget her clinic may need to reduce staff or hours.
“My husband is a part-time student and he works full time,” Blake said. “And he just doesn’t make enough (money). I stay home with my kids so we don’t have to pay daycare. But we have WIC because we have to. We have no choice. And if they cut the budget it would severely affect our family.”
The National WIC Association estimates more than 700,000 women and children could lose services nationwide, around 3,600 in Nebraska. The Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services said it is still too early to speculate on how federal cuts would play out locally.
Brad Lubben at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln said Congress would save more money from USDA simply by passing a new farm bill. But, for now, Lubben said not to expect a new bill unless it is hashed out as part of a breakthrough on the fiscal cliff.
“If it’s going to move yet this year, it’s going to move as an attachment to a bigger bill,” Lubben said.
Any deal on the fiscal cliff is expected to address estate taxes, and Lubben said a new farm bill should take sequestration cuts to programs like WIC off the table. But unlike the taxes and cuts in the fiscal cliff, political compromise is not automatic.